Forma, Vol. 32 (Special Issue II), pp. SII3–SII10, 2017


Visualization of Hydrogen Atomic Orbitals Classification according to the Node Type

Sumio Tokita

Saitama University (Emeritus), 255 Shimo-Ohkubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama-shi, Saitama 338-8570, Japan
E-mail address:

(Received May 3, 2017; Accepted June 14, 2017)

Abstract. A three dimensional representation of the probability density distribution of a hydrogen atomic orbital in a glass block was developed. The density of the dots sculptured in the glass block shows the probability density of finding an electron, so the nodal plane is well described as spherical shell(s), planar or conical node(s) where the dots cannot be found. Node types and their numbers are summarized in Table 2. Classification according to the node type leads to an observation of systematic regularity in hydrogen atomic orbitals. Relationship between a square of a complex atomic orbital and a real atomic orbital is explained. Advantage of the probability density sculpture in a spherical glass block is also discussed.

Keywords: Electron Cloud, 3-dimensional Representation, Spherical Node, Planar Node Including z axis, Planar and Conical Node Symmetrical about z axis, Complex Atomic Orbital, Real Atomic Orbital, Probability Density Distribution

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