Forma, Vol. 29 (Special Issue), pp. S71–S76, 2014

Comparison of 2D and 3D Vision Gaze with Simultaneous Measurements of Accommodation and Convergence

Hiroki Hori1, Tomoki Shiomi1, Satoshi Hasegawa2, Hiroki Takada3, Masako Omori4, Yasuyuki Matsuura1, Hiromu Ishio1 and Masaru Miyao1*

1Department of Information Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan
2Department of Information and Media Studies, Nagoya Bunri University, 365 Maeda, Inazawa-cho, Inazawa, Aichi 492-8520, Japan
3Graduate School of Engineering Human and Artificial Intelligent Systems, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui 910-8507, Japan
4Facility of Home Ergonomics, Kobe Women’s University, 2-1 Aoyama, Higashisuma, Suma-ku, Kobe 654-8585, Japan
*E-mail address:

(Received November 4, 2010; Accepted July 1, 2011)

Abstract. Accommodation and convergence were measured simultaneously while subjects viewed 2D and 3D images. The aim was to compare fixation distances between accommodation and convergence in young subjects while they viewed 2D and 3D images. Measurements were made three times, 40 seconds each, using 2D and 3D images. The result suggests that ocular functions during viewing of 3D images are very similar to those during natural viewing. Previously established and widely used theories, such that within a VR system eyes must maintain accommodation on the fixed LCD screen, may need to be corrected.

Keywords: Accommodation, Convergence, Simultaneous Measurement, Visual Fatigue

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