Forma, Vol. 8 (No. 3), pp. 297-307, 1993
Original Paper

Fourier Analysis of Shape Changes in the Japanese Skull: Vertical View

Fumio Ohtsuki1, Teruo Uetake2, Kazutaka Adachi3, Pete. E. Lestrel4 and Kazuro Hanihara5

1Laboratory of Human Morphology, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, Faculty of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, 1-1 Minamiohsawa, Hachioji-shi, Tokyo 192-03, Japan
2Department of Health and Physical Education, Faculty of General Education, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183, Japan
3Department of Anthropology, Faculty of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113, Japan
4School of Dentistry, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1668, U.S.A.
5International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Kyoto 610-11, Japan

(Received April 19, 1993; Accepted October 28, 1993)

Keywords: Fourier analysis, Skull shape, Vertical view, Secular changes

Abstract. Photographs (norma verticalis) of Japanese adult skulls (n = 166) were mathematically described with Fourier analysis to assess shape changes. The materials used were adult male skulls excavated from the Kanto District and covered four ages; Jomon (2000-1000 B.C.), Kamakura (14 c. A.D.), Muromachi (15 c. A.D.) and Edo (18 c. A.D.). The Fourier analysis was undertaken after the removal of size differences. Significant differences among the four groups were found at the left and right parietal margins, and at the occipital margin. The differences among the four age groups observed in the left parietal margin coincide with the previous findings for the occipital-view.